• If you are citizen of an European Union member nation, you may not use this service unless you are at least 16 years old.

  • You already know Dokkio is an AI-powered assistant to organize & manage your digital files & messages. Very soon, Dokkio will support Outlook as well as One Drive. Check it out today!


Educational Environment and Research on Inclusive Programs

Page history last edited by Elizabeth Bryant 14 years, 8 months ago

With the number of D/HH students placed in inclusion programs growing, an examination of the challenges and outcomes affecting these students deserves much attention. The theory of inclusion is that Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing (D/HH) students will become academically and socially integrated within the general education classroom. These inclusive settings look different for each student, however. Often students find that they are the only D/HH student in the general education classroom, making it difficult to adjust. Although accommodations are made for D/HH students, the ways in which they receive instruction may vary. Teachers may use direct instruction through the use of assistive listening devices or they may provide mediated instruction through the use of sign language interpreters. The question, however, is whether these accommodations are providing adequate support for D/HH students to reach expected levels of academic achievement.


Instruction in the inclusive setting is typically mediated through the use of sign language interpreters, but can involve notetakers, real-time speech-to-print services, or cued speech. There is much evidence that the use of mediated instruction in general education classrooms may not be sufficient in providing full access to information for D/HH students. Stinson and Antia (1999) reported some of the difficulties that arise when students receive mediated instruction in inclusive settings. They reported that due to a lag time between spoken messages from the instructor and signed messages from the interpreter, students were less likely to participate in class. Communication was slower, information altered, and general classroom discourse lost.




Antia, S. D., Jones, P. B., Reed, S., & Kreimeyer, K. H. (2009). Academic Status and Progress of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in General Education Classrooms. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 14(3), 293-311.


Marschark, M., Sapere, P., Convertino, C., & Pelz, J. (2008). Learning via Direct and Mediated Instruction by Deaf Students. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 13(4), 546-561.


Stinson, M. S. & Antia, S. D. (1999). Considerations in Educating Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in Inclusive Settings, Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 4(3), 163-175.





Comments (0)

You don't have permission to comment on this page.